EPA Publishes Proposed Phase 3 GHG Emissions Standards for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in Federal Register

On April 27, 2023, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially published its proposed Phase 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions rule for heavy-duty vehicles in the Federal Register. This action formally begins the agency's 50-day public comment period, which will run through June 16th

First and foremost, the Phase 3 rule will increase up-front truck purchase prices. However, EPA does expect that this upfront cost increase would be recouped due to reduced operating and fuel savings. 
Second, the proposed Phase 3 rule revises the previously-approved Model Year (MY) 2027 GHG standards to be more stringent for vocational vehicles and day cab tractors. In addition, it introduces new standards for vocational vehicles and day cab tractors for MYs 2028 through 2032 that will be progressively more stringent. For sleeper cab tractors, the proposed Phase 3 rule introduces new, more rigorous GHG standards for MYs 2030-2032. Similar to the Phase 2 GHG rule, the Phase 3 standards are differentiated by vehicle type and use. Lastly, it's important to note that the proposed standards do not mandate the use of a specific technology. 
While the EPA has a history of underestimating industry costs, they do believe that the MY 2032 average per-vehicle cost increase will be between $8,000 and $11,400 per tractor. In addition, due to the extra layers of complexity involving added vehicle weight, recharge times, and vehicle range, fleets will likely need to utilize additional zero-emission vehicles (compared to the number of diesel-fueled vehicles) to ensure they can fulfill the hauling needs of their customers. 
For the last several weeks, TRALA and its members have been holding weekly meetings with the EPA rule-writing team to educate them on the intricacies of truck renting and leasing operations. In addition, these meetings have given our industry the opportunity to share experiences and concerns with zero-emission vehicles and charging infrastructure. These EPA meetings are extremely critical to help ensure that the rule writers wholly understand the truck renting and leasing space.
Please see below for more detailed information on today's proposed rule release and analysis:

  • You may view the proposed Phase 3 rule by clicking here.
  • To view the Phase 3 Regulatory Impact Analysis, please click here
  • On May 2nd and 3rd, the EPA will be holding a Public Hearing on today's proposed rule. Members interested in listening to the hearing may get further details by clicking here.

TRALA will continue to work with its environmental consultant and members to ensure our concerns are heard and addressed. Please do not hesitate to contact Robby Wehagen at or Elizabeth Hyers at, if you have any questions or need additional information.